Samtse is one of the four southern districts of Bhutan.
Prior to the establishment of hereditary monarch in Bhutan, Samtse was divided into two administrative regions, which were eastern and western. The western region was under the control of Gongzin Sonam Tobgay Dorji, the then Raja Sab of Kalimpong and the eastern region was under the administrative control of Dewan and Kazi (Landlords) who worked for the Paro penlop. The famous Saurini Kothi, which has 52 doors, was used as the summer residence as well as offices of Dewan and Kazi while Dorpani was used as winter residence as well as offices.
During 1970s, Samtse was created as the Dzongkhag Headquarters and the present administrative unit was established.
Samtse has an area of approximately 1,582 sq.km and has two Dungkhags (Dorokha and Tashicholing) and 16 gewogs. It shares border with West Bengal, India, and is considered as the most densely populated Dzongkhag.