Zhemgang District share its borders with Sarpang, Trongsa, Bumthang, Mongar and Samdrup Jongkhar. It also connects with the border of Assam, India.
The dominant language in Zhemgang is Khengkha. Historically, Khengkha and its speakers have had close contact with speakers of Kurtöpkha, Nupbikha, and Bumthangkha to the north, to the extent that they may be considered part of a wider collection of "Bumthang languages. By all accounts the Kheng are more closely related to the people of central Bhutan than they are to their neighbors in eastern Bhutan, who are primarily Sharchops.
Most of Zhemgang District is part of the protected areas of Bhutan. Zhemgang's environmentally protected areas include Jigme Singye Wangchuck National Park and Royal Manas National Park. These parks connect to Phrumsengla National Park in the north via a biological corridor that bisects Zhemgang.