Samdrup Jongkhar is situated in the southeastern corner of the country, sharing its southern and northern borders with the Indian states of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh respectively.
It has a population of over 40,700, with 4808 households and an area of 1877.94 sq. km constituting around 4% of the country's total.
Samdrup Jongkhar town's location at the border with India provides access to the Indian market, not only for the Dzongkhag but also for the other eastern Dzongkhags. It has a potential to serve as Bhutan's gateway to Assam and North Eastern states. However, a major threat to economic opportunities for the region's households is posed by the cheaper products available across the border and the control over wholesale market by the Indian ethnic community.
The town has a FCB warehouse and an auction yard particularly for mandarin, potatoes and ginger storage and auctioning from different parts of the whole of the eastern region, with the first and third products being the main cash crops of the Dzongkhag. However, frequent strikes in Assam State hinder the movement and transportation of goods. In addition, its long stretch of porous border exposes huge forested areas to the increasing population of Assam with corresponding increase in the illegal extraction of the forest resources.