A short Biography of HH Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche Dilgo Khyentser Rinpoche was born in 1910 in eastern Tibet to a family descended from the royal lineage of the ninth-century king Thisong detsen. When he was still in his mother’s womb, Rinpoche is recognized as a tulku or incarnation by the illustrious teacher Mipham Rimpoche. After his birth, many other lamas also recognized him as an important incarnate lama. Shechen Gyaltsap enthroned him as an emanation of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, one of the most important tertons (treasure-finders) and writers of the 19th century. His name Khyen-tse means wisdom and loves. Even as a little boy, Rinpoche had a strong desire to devote himself entirely to the spiritual life. Although his father wanted him to follow in his footsteps as a householder, he finally agreed to allow his son to pursue his own wishes and, at the age of eleven, Rinpoche entered Shechen Monastery in Kham, eastern Tibet, one of the six main monasteries of the Nyingma school. Education and Teachers Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche studied with many great teachers, including his root guru, Shechen Gyaltsap, from whom he received all the essential empowerments and instructions of the Nyingma tradition. Then, from the age of fifteen until he was twenty-eight, he spent his time meditating in silent retreat, living is isolated hermitages and caves, or sometimes simply under the shelter of overhanging rocks in the mountainous countryside. He later spent many years with Dzongsar Khyentse Chokyi Lodro (1893-1959), receiving empowerments and teachings. When he told his teacher that he wanted to spend the rest of his life in solitary retreat, Chokyi Lodro answered, “The time has come for you to teach and transmit to others the precious teachings you have received.” From then on, Rinpoche worked for the benefit of others with the tireless energy that is the hallmark of the Khyentse lineage. He was a great teacher and terton, and was the most eminent modern-day proponent of the nonsectarian or Rime tradition. His terma (rediscovered treasure-text) fill five volumes. Life in Exile In the late 1950’s Khyentse Rinpoche and his family –his wife, Khandro Lhamo,and their two young daughters-fled Tibet. They were welcomed in Bhutan by the Bhutanese Royal family. Rinpoche began teaching in a large school near the country’s capital. Soon his inner qualities drew many students to him, and as the years passed he became the foremost Buddhist teacher in Bhutan, revered by all, from the king to the humblest farmer. In Bhutan, Rinpoche gave teachings perform ceremonies, wrote treatises and texts, and oversaw the preservation and construction of numerous stupas and statues
About Cordyceps one of the most expensive medicine in Bhutan. Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. Sinensis remain unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were finally investigated, and compared with natural C. Sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Corydceps from Bhutan was C. sinensis and the host insect belonged to Hepialidae sp. In addition, nucleosides and their bases such as guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthine, uridine, inosine, thymidine, adenine, and adenosine, as well as compositional monosaccharides, partial acid or enzymatic hydrolysates, molecular weights and contents of polysaccharides in Cordyceps from Bhutan were all similar to those of natural C.sinensis. All data which is beneficial for the improvement of their performance in health and medicinal food areas. Introduction Cordyceps sinesis, one of the well known tonic and traditional Chinese medicines, is a composite consisting of the stromata of the fungus, parasitized on the larva of some species of insects (Family: Hepialidae), and the dead caterpillar. It is distributed on the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding regions at an altitude above 3,000 m, including Tibet, Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, and Yannan provinces in China and in certain areas such as the countries of Bhutan, India and Nepal on the southern flank of the Himalayas. Usually, C. sinensis has been used for the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases such as asthma, bronchitis, lung inflammation, nocturnal emissions, and night sweats. Indeed, nucleosides and polysaccharides were considered as the mainly bioactive components in C. sinensis. Currently, due to its various beneficial effects and limited supply, the price of C. sinensis has increased dramatically and is much more expensive, even 4 times, than gold by weights. Therefore, natural Cordyceps collected from Bhutan (Bhutanese Cordyceps) has attracted much attention of the Royal Government of Bhutan, which has been considered as an economically important fungus as natural C. seninsis. However, whether Bhutanese Cordyceps could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Indeed, to the best of our knowledge, few chemical character of cordyceps from Bhutan have been investigated, and never been compared with those of natural C. sinensis. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Bhutanese Cordyceps were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis, which were beneficial for better understanding the rational use of cordyceps from Bhutan.
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